TURKISH MUSIC DICTIONARY
A term used by city people to define a local singing style. Compound terms exist, such as Dağî Hüseynî, Dağî Hicaz, Dâğî Şarkı, Dâğî Türkü.
A compound makam once used in Turkish Classical Music, of which no examples have survived to the present.
The name given to folk songs of a local nature taken from the Köçekçe repertoire.
A folk percussion instrument. See Def.
A person who plays dâire.
Kazakh for tef/def.
A compound makam of Turkish Classical Music, of which no examples have survived to the present.
1. Uzbek and Kirghiz for def/tef
2. A stroke on a percussion instrument. Also called darb.
1. The term for each stroke of the right and left hands on the knees in the usûls of Turkish Classical Music.
2. A musical form in Turkish Classical Music.
A 10-beat minor usûl used in Turkish Classical Music.
A 33-beat usûl of Turkish Classical Music used only in the music of Yavuz Yektay, formed by the combination of Türk Aksağı, Semâî, Müsemmen, Evfer and one more Müsemmen.
The name for "double" usûls in Turkish Classical Music, created by playing two of the major usûls one after the other, once or twice. This type of usûl is mostly used in forms such as peşrev, kâr and beste. The darbeyn usûls encountered in various works include: 1 Fer-1 Muhammes; 1 Nîm Sakıyl-1 Berefşan; 1 Devr-i Kebîr-1 Berefşân; 2 Remel-1 Muhammes; 2 Frengî Fer-2 Devr-i Kebîr; 3 Frengî Fer- 1 Berefşân; 2 Remel-2 Muhammes; 2 Devr-i Kebîr-2 Berefşân; and Nîm Sakıyl-Sakıyl-Fahte.
A 14-beat usûl of Turkish Classical Music created by Abdülkâdir Merâgî.
Darb-ı Fetih (Zarb-ı Fetih)
An 88-count major usûl used in Turkish Classical Music. According to some theoreticians, it is a combination of 1 Sofyân, 1 Yürük Semâî, 3 Sofyân, 3 Yürük Semâî, 2 Sofyân, 1 Yürük Semâî, 3 Sofyân, 3 Yürük Semâî, 2 Sofyân, 1 Yürük Semâî and 1 Nîm Hafîf. According to others, although it was originally created by Abdülkâdir Merâgî as a 98-beat usûl, it later came to be used in Ottoman music as an 88-meter usûl composed of 1 Sofyan, 1 Yürük Semâî, 5 Sofyân, 2 Yürük Semâî, 1 Sofyân, 1 Yürük Semâî, 5 Sofyân and 1 Nîm Hafîf. It shows up in certain works in the peşrev and beste forms as well as military music.
A 38-beat major usûl used in Turkish Classical Music, created by Varda Kosta Ahmet Ağa of 4 Sofyân, 1 Yürük Semâî and 4 Sofyân. No examples have survived to the present.
An usûl of Turkish Classical Music. No examples have survived to the present.
A five-beat minor usûl of Turkish Classical Music.
Darb-ı Türkî (Türkî Darb)
An 18-beat major usûl used in Turkish Classical Music composed of 1 Yürük Semâî and 3 Sofyân. It is used in religious forms such as tevşîh, salât, ilâhî and na't, as well as secular forms such as kâr, best and şarkı.
A goblet-shaped drum made of metal or clay used in Turkish music. Also known by such local variations as dümbelek, dümbek, dümbeke, delbek and deblek.
A14-beat minor usûl used in Turkish Classical Music. No examples have survived to the present.
Darbü'l-Mietyen (=Devr-i Mieteyn)
A 200-beat major usûl used in Turkish Classical Music. It was created by Abdülkâdir Merâgî in honor of Muhammed Mirzâ, grandson and successor of Timur. No examples have survived to the present.
A 24-beat major usûl used in Turkish Classical Music. No examples have survived to the present.
The general name for a lively zeybek melody of the Isparta region.
A large davul.
A drum consisting of a body from 45-90 cm wide with skin heads tied on with thick cord, and played with thick and thin beaters known as tokmak and çubuk respectively. The combination of davul and zurna is still an indispensible duo in many areas, played in open areas such as a square. These remain the two most common instruments of Anatolian Turkish music, used not only in celebrations but also for all manner of sporting events. Davul playing techniques change from region to region.
A leader in the Alevi-Bektashi and Mevlevi orders. Among the Anatolian Alevis in particular, many dedes direct not only the religious ceremonies but also the musical practice of the gathering, singing playing deyiş, duvaz, semah etc. with their own bağlamas. Several dedes thus take on the duty of zakir.
The name for a small-sized bağlama common among the Alevis of Eastern Anatolia. See Cura.
A frame drum of Turkish music, which may be with our without cymbals.
A player of def.
The word for deyiş in the Tunceli region.
A type of uzun hava common among the Turkmen of Iraq. Hoyrat.
A single pedal tone, a drone such as that held by the long pipe of a bagpipe. The pipes of the Black Sea do not use a drone pipe.
An antiphonal style of folk singing or atışma (musical sparring).
A stroke, a hit. Based on this word, percussion instruments are sometimes referred to as depki çalgılar.
A short instrumental section played before a free-rhythm tune known as mugam. Mostly known from the music of Azerbaijan.
An âşık makam used in Northern and Eastern Anatolia.
An old term in Turkish Classical Musical circles now fallen into disuse, meaning "harmonious, concordant."
"Inharmonious, discordant." See Derli.
Lit. "Dervish Horn." A wind instrument made from an animal horn, rumored to be an imitation of the horn called a "sur" played by the angel İsrafil/Raphael. Although wind instruments producing a single tone are common in many religions, in the Islamic world they occur most often in the various orders. The derviş borusu cannot play melodies does not function as an accompanying instrument.
An epic poem, taking as its subject all manner of personal and societal events in the depths of history. With a variety of names according to their subjects, destans are also laments. Their musical characteristics change from region to region, but the great majority of them are in the free-rhythm uzun hava style.
One of the various groupings of modes comprising the whole of Azerbaijan and Iranian music.
In Turkish Classical Music, the term used for the whole of an usûl completed in one measure.
In Turkish Classical Music, a melody consisting of a few phrases.
A melody consisting of short phrases, a short phrase.
A 56-beat usûl used in Turkish Classical Music, developed by Abdülkâdir Merâgî in honor of Şâhruh.
Devr-i Revân (=Âyîn Devr-i Revânı)
A 60-beat major usûl used in Turkish Classical Music developed by Abdülkâdir Merâgî in honor of Sultan Ahmed Celâhir. No examples have survived to the present.
A 7-beat minor usûl used in Turkish Classical Music, consisting of the combination of Semâî and Sofyân. It is used in forms such as şarkı, türkü, köçekçe and ilâhî, as well as the fourth hane of saz semâîs.
1. Colloquially, a term to mean "saying, telling." In this sense it has come to be used for all types of türkü, mani and melody.
2. In Alevi-Bektashi communities, it refers to a chiefly religious-mystic genre of song played at the beginning of the cem. As its words are mostly religious in nature, the music that accompanies is appropriate to the subject.
The antiphonal singing of türkü and mani style melodies; the reciprocal atışma of âşıks.
One name for the wooden beater used to play a davul.
A type of dance performed in the Teke region; the melody that accompanies this dance.
A general name used for instruments in the bağlama family, derived from the verb tıngırmak/tıngırdatmak. It is also said to be a folk dialect term for the tambura. See Tambura
1. "Dik ses" (high tone), "dik perde" (high note/fret) are commonly used terms.
2. In Turkish Classical Music, the term used to indicate that a note is raised by a few komas, and used before the regular name of the note.
In Turkish Classical Music, the high Fa/F one koma sharp or Sol eight komas flat.
In Turkish Classical Music, Fa/F one koma sharp or Sol eight komas flat in the middle octave.
To play a note flatter than normal.
In Turkish Classical Music, Do/C one koma flat in the middle octave.
In Turkish Classical Music, Fa/F eight komas sharp or Sol one koma flat in the middle octave.
In Turkish Classical Music, Do/C eight komas sharp or Re/D one koma flat in the high octave.
In Turkish Classical Music, Re/D eight komas sharp or Mi/E one koma flat in the high octave.
In Turkish Classical Music, La.A one koma sharp or Si/B 8 komas flat in the middle octave.
In Turkish Classical Music, Fa/F eight komas sharp or Sol/G one koma flat in the high octave.
In Turkish Classical Music, La/A one koma sharp or Si/B eight komas flat in the high octave.
In Turkish Classical Music, Sol/G eight komas sharp or La/A one koma flat in the high octave.
Dik Zengûle (Zirgüle)
In Turkish Classical Music, Sol/G eight komas sharp or la/A one koma flat in the middle octave.
1. Lit. "tongue," the reed attached to wind instruments such as the zurna, reed or sipsi.
2. The fipple.
A compound makam in Turkish Classical Music, thought to have been devised by Abdülbâki Nâsır Dede. No examples have survived to the present.
A compound makam of Turkish Classical Music. It is created by adding a Segâh tetrachord transposed ırak (Fa/F four komas sharp) or a section of the scale of the makam Irak onto the scale of the makam Hüseynî on dügah (La/A) (in its place). It is descending in character. Its tonic is ırak (Fa four komas sharp), and its dominants are hüseynî (Mi/E) and dügâh (La/A). Its suspended cadences are the flavors Bûselik transposed to nevâ (Re/D), Çargâh transposed to çargâh (Do/C), a descending Rast on nevâ, a descending Pençgâh on çargâh and Hüseynî transposed to hüseynî (Mi/E), which are also the suspended cadences of the makam Hüseynî, as well as a Segâh trichord transposed to segâh (Si/B one koma flat), a full or diminished Ferahnâk pentachord and Segâh
A compound makam of Turkish Classical Music, achieved by adding the scale of the makam Ferahvezâ on yegâh (Re/D) to the scale of the makam Hüseynî on dügâh (La/A). It is descending in character. Its tonic is yegâh (Re/D), and its dominant is hüseynî (Mi/E). Its suspended cadencies are Çargâh on çargâh (Do/C), the flavors Hüseynî transposed to dügâh (La/A), the Segâh and Ferahnâk pentachord on segâh and Segâh trichord, which are also the suspended cadences of the makams Hüseynî and Ferahfezâ; as well as the flavors Bûselik transposed to nevâ (Re/D), Çargâh on çargâh (Do/C), Kürdî and Hicâz transposed to dügâh (La/A), Bûselik transposed to rast (Sol/G) and Çargâh transposed to acemaşîrân (Fa/F).
Fipple flutes such as the düdüks and kavals found nearly everywhere in Anatolia.
Another name for the dilli kaval, or fipple flute.
Din Dışı Müzik (Secular Music)
A category within Turkish Classical Music recognized by theoreticians, which may include all types of music considered "worldly" in their makams and usûls. These include instrumental forms written with no religious motive such as Taksîm, Peşrev, Medhal, Saz Semâîsi, Longa, Sirto, Oyun Havası and Aranağme, as well as vocal forms such as Kâr, Kâr-ı nâtık, Kârçe, Beste, Ağır Semâî, Yürük Semâî, Gazel, Şarkı, Türkü and Köçekçe. Secular music is not merely a formal classification of folk and classical music, it involves different styles as well.
Dinî Müzik (Religious Music)
A category within Turkish Classical Music recognized by theoreticians. With subjects either overtly religious or touching on religious subjects, this music is designed to break through the resistance of the spirit, not only in terms of its lyrics but of its makam structure as well. The chief forms in this category include , Âyin, Na't, Durak, Mirâcîye, İlâhî, Tevşih, Şugûl, Ezan, Mahfel sürmesi, Tekbîr, Temcîd, Tesbîh, Salât, Selâm, Münâcaat and Mevlîd. In the music of religious orders and lodges, various instrumental forms may also be played with a religious purpose. Religious musical forms are not merely a formal classification but involve different styles as well.
1. A form of Turkish music. Although it bears certain similarities to the şarkı form, it differs in terms of lyrics and style. Its folk literature form is derived from divan poetry. It usually consists of two sections, one unmetered and the other metered in a particular usûl.
3. A type of poetry in Turkish folk literature.
4. The complete collection of a poet's works; an anthology.
The name given to divan by folk poets. There are various forms, such as Yerli Divanisi and Mereke Divanisi.
The largest of the instruments in the bağlama family.
2. Vocal improvisation, especially by âşıks, who make up poetry on the spot on a subject they haven't thought about. In Northern Anatolia the term irtical is used with the meaning. In Turkish Classical Music, an instrumental improvisation is called a taksim, while a vocal improvisation is known as a gazel. See Doğmaca.
A stringed instrument used in Kazakh music. With its three-cornered body, tied frets and silk or metal strings played with the fingernails, it resembles the dutar of the Tadjiks, Uzbeks and Kirghiz, but it is larger than the dutar.
A compound makam of Turkish Classical Music. No examples have survived to the present.
Syn. Vurmalı Çalgılar, percussion instruments.
In Turkish Classical Music, a quartet, or a piece written for four instruments or parts.
The setting of words or poetry to music.
Beat, strike: To strike the face of a string instrument with the finger, or to strike a percussion instrument with the hand or a stick
Syn. Vurmalı Çalgılar, Depki Çalgılar, Percussion instrument.
1. Lit. "prayer," a genre in Turkish Classical Music and poetry.
2. The introductory section of some semahs.
Lit. "The lips do not touch." A competitive practice in the Northern Anatolian âşık tradition, in which at least two âşıks sing their poetry without touching their lips, thus not pronouncing the labial consonants b, p and m. In order to produce a "penalty" for touching the lips, the âşıks generally hold a needle between the lips during this type of contest.
1. The tonic. See Karar.
2. A religious vocal style of Turkish Classical Music, composed by setting kaside-type poetry praising the Creator to the usûl Durak Evferi.
A 21-beat major usûl of Turkish Classical Music, formed by the combination of one Türk Aksağı and four Sofyâns, thus far used exclusively in religious music. It is used in genres such as na't, durak, tevşih and mersiye.
A two-stringe, long-necked lute of the Central Asian Turkic peoples, played either with the fingers or with a pick.
Duvaz (Duvaz İmam)
A type of poetry in the Alevi-Bektashi belief system, usually in the koşma meter, containing the names of the twelve Imams. Duvaz İmam pieces are performed within melodic patterns unique to each region.
A type of poetry and music within the Northern Anatolian aşık tradition.
A Turkish folk flute with six or seven holes. The same term is used for small kavals. They are mostly made from a willow twig as a toy for children. Although there are düküks carved from hard woods, they are called dilli düdük or kaval. As Evliya Çelebi stated in his Sehayatnâme, there were many players in 17th century Istanbul, and many different types, including kaba düdük, yelli düdük, arabî düdük, çığırtma düdüğü, macar düdüğü, mehter düdüğü, mızmız (mizmar) düdüğü, dangilü düdüğü and tulum düdüğü. It is still common today, especially among children.
1. The name given to La/A of the middle octave in Turkish Classical Music.
2. A compound makam of Turkish Classical Music, created by adding a portion of the scale of the makam Nev'eser transposed to yegâh (re) to the scale of the makam Sabâ on dügâh (La/A). It possesses an ascending character. Its tonic is dügâh (La/A), its dominants are çargâh (Do/C) as well as dügâh (La/A), the dominant of the makam Nev'eser, transposed to yegâh. Its suspended candences are the same as those of the makams Sabâ and Zîrgûleli Hicâz as well as a flavor of Hicâz transposed to hüsaynî aşîrân (Mi/E).
A variant of the makam Dügâh of Turkish Classical Music, formed by adding the Bûselik pentachord to the basic scale of the makam Dügâh. Its tonic is dügâh (La/A), and its dominants are sabâ (that is, today's hicâz - Re/D 4 komas flat), and çargâh (Do/C).
A compound makam once used in, formed by adding the makam Acem to the basic scale of the makam Dügâh. This Dügâh is the same as the scale of today's Uşşâk makam. No examples have survived to the present.
A compound makam once used in Turkish Classical Music, formed by adding the scale of the makam Hicaz to the basic scale of the makam Dügâh. No examples have survived to the present.
A variant of the makam Dügâh used in Turkish Classical Music. It is formed by adding the scale of the makam Segâh on segâh (Si/B one koma flat) onto the scale of the makam Uşşâk transposed to dügâh (La/A), and then once more adding the scale of the makam Uşşâk on dügâh (La/A). It is ascending in character, and its tonic is dügâh (La/A).
The general name for the entire body of melodies played in various regions of Anatolia on occasions such as weddings, henna nights, engagement parties etc.
1. In Turkish Classical Music, the syllable used to imitate the strong beats of an usûl.
2. The side or part of drums such as the davul, darbuka, kudüm etc. which produces the strong beat.
The folk term for an instrument similar to the darbuka, mostly made of clay in darbuka form with a skin stretched over the top.
A 9-beat minor usûl used in Turkish Classical Music, formed by joining two Sofyâns. Its 8/8 form has been used in nearly every genre of music both great and small, while its 8/4 form is used in forms such as peşrev, beste, şarkı and ilâhi.
1. Lit. "Regular, even," the term used for even (2- and 4-beat) meters.
2. The name given to dances of the Halay and Bar form with only one section.
A tuning of a string instrument.
Düzenlemek (=Düzen vermek):
To tune a stringed instrument.
An arrangement of strong and weak beats or section of an usûl which combine to form an usûl of Turkish music.