TURKISH MUSIC DICTIONARY
Can Direği (Lit. "soul/life column")
The support column that runs from the neck through the body of certain stringed instruments; the dowelstick.
A compound makam used in Turkish Classical Music, also known as a variant of the makam Şevk-u Tarab. According to some theoreticians, it is created by adding a Kürdî tetrachord above the Sabâ scale from dügâh (la/A) and Acem-aşîrân scale from acem (fa/F) which create the Şevk-u Tarab. Some also hold that there are two different formulas for the Cânfezâ makam. One of these is to add an Uşşâk tetrachord transposed to hüseynî aşîrân (mi/E) to the scale of the makam Sabâ; and the other is to add a Çârgâh pentachord from acem-aşîrân (fa/F) to the basic Sabâ scale. The makam is descending-ascending in character. Its tonic is hüseynî aşîrân, and its dominants are dügâh (la/A) and çargâh.
In Turkish Classical Music, the name used to refer to an easily-played style of saz semâîsi and peşrev. In later years this was replaced by the medhal form. See Medhal.
Gathering, refers especially to religious gatherings. See Ayin-i Cem
Cenâze Salâtı (Salâsı)
See Salât, Salâ
Ceng-i Harbî (=Çeng-i Harbî)
1. A ten-beat minor usûl used in Turkish Classical Music, consisting of two measures of Nim Sofyan followed by two of Semâî. It has been used in marches, as well as some bestes and in the fourth vers of saz semâîsis.
2. A type of melody used in Anatolia to excite the spectators of sports competitions such as wrestling and javelin throwing contests.
3. An individual stroke on the davul.
The name for one of the Köroğlu melodies.
One of the usûls used in Turkish Classical Music. No examples have survived to the present.
An usûl once used in Turkish Classical Music. No examples have survived to the present.
The general name for a repertoire of Turkish folk songs on the subject of Algeria, and dances dedicated to this country, which are to be found in almost every corner of Anatolia.
See Kök Hâli.
A term for folk songs, makams and melodies, used mostly by the Tatars, also ır. Sung on a variety of subjects, cırs are most often performed as wedding songs and concern this subject.
A term for a strong, high pitched sound.
Pun, poems in which words are imbued with new/different meanings.
An âşık makam of northern Anatolia.
A wind instrument made by hollowing out a twig from a tree, mostly encountered in Rize and Artvin provinces. It is used mostly by children and is a sort of toy instrument.
The thin unwound strings used on a bağlama.
Puns, the art of making puns. See Hoyrat, Ciğa.
Cin Deliği (=Şeytan Deliği)
1. (Lit. Demon/Devil's hole)
2. The small unfingered holes on the ends of kavals and zurnas.
In Turkish Classical Music, a fourth
The special repertoire played for folk javelin (cirit) events.
A woodwind instrument that began to gain importance in western music especially toward the late 17th century, and assumed its present form largely in the 18th century. Later constructed of metal as well, the clarinet entered Turkish music around the beginning of the 20th century. The clarinet is divided into three groups; the soprano, alto and bass.
The collection of all aspects of folk culture within a discipline defined by a specific set of rules. Such activities have been in progress among various Turkish societies since the beginning of the 20th century. Music collection is a separate branch of specialization, and in addition to a broad knowledge of music and repertoire, requires specialized analytical training.
1. In religious music, the term for a section performed in unison. See Cumhur İlahi
2. The general term for a piece being sung by the entire ensemble.
1. In Turkish Classical Music, an ilahi composed for choir in unison.
2. An ilahi sung together.
The smallest member of the bağlama family.
A small-diameter folk drum played mostly in and around the provinces of Adana, Gaziantep and Trabzon.
A tuning for instruments in the with two courses of strings, consisting of la/A for the lower string and mi/E for the upper string.
A small zurna played chiefly in and around the city of Trabzon in the central Black Sea region.
A ten-beat usûl used in Turkish Classical Music, composed of two joined Türk Aksağı usûls. It is used in şarkı, türkü, ilâhî and dance tunes, as well as the fourth verse of saz semâîsis.
A ten-beat minor usûl in Turkish Classical Music that is formed by changing the place of the last two beats of Curcuna. It is used only in some places in a piece rather than throughout.
1. A stringed instrument used in classical Turkish music, invented in the 1930s by Zeynel Abidin Cümbüş and consisting of an aluminum body with a plastic or skin face, and a fretless neck. As the aluminum body gives it a powerful sound, it is used in open-air performance at weddings and other such festivities.
2. An Ankara term for a musical gathering.
A musical phrase.
1. A wind instrument (üflemeli çalgılar) used in 17th-century Turkish Classical Music.
2. A percussion instrument used in Turkish Classical Music, played in pairs by çengis (female dancers), a type of metal castanet/finger cymbal.
To sing a türkü or mani.
Çağırtma Düdüğü (Çığırtma Düdüğü)
See Çığırtma, Düdük.
A general term for a musical instrument. In Anatolia, the verb çalmak means to strike anything with the hand or another item, or brush the hand over, and it is very likely from this usage that the word developed. Popular in rural areas in the sense of "musical instrument," the term has only in recent years come into use in urban centers. In the old days, the terms "saz" or "alât-ı musiki" were used in the cities.
A player of any instrument, used chiefly for professional performers. After the point where this profession began to be disparaged in society, the term mahalli sanatçı ("local artist") became widespread.
To arrange a piece instrumentally.
Instrumental music (with no vocal accompaniment).
Verb. Colloqualliy, to strike anything on something else; in music, to play a musical instrument. Also the source of the word çalgı (See above).
An instrument consisting of a pair of tongs with one or more pairs of cymbals on the ends.
Çamşıhı Ağzı (Çamşıhı Style)
The style of singing uzun hava in the Çamşıhı region of Sivas.
An instrument used in Turkish Classical Music. According to Merâgî, it is the Turkish name for the mûsîkar-ı hıtâyî of East Turkistan (See Mûsîkar-ı Hıtâyî). It consists of neys arranged side-by-side and blown with a brass pipe.
1. The high Do/C in Turkish Classical Music
2. A simple makam used in Turkish Classical Music, formed by adding a Çargâh tetrachord from Sol/G to a Çargâh pentachord on çargâh (Do/C) or kaba çargâh (low Do/C). It is ascending and ascending-descending in character. Its tonic is çargâh (Do/C), or kaba çargâh (low Do/C), and its dominant is rast (Sol/G) or gerdaniye (Sol/G).
A variant of the makam Çargâh used in Turkish Classical Music. No examples have survived to the present.
Çargâh Pentachord. In Turkish Classical Music, an array of five notes formed by adding one tanini (whole tone) to a çargâh tetrachord on kaba çargâh (low Do/C) or çargâh (Do/C).
Çargâh Tetrachord. In Turkish Classical Music, the array of four notes from kaba çargâh (low Do/C) or çargâh (Do/C) to form a perfect fourth.
A variant of the makam Çargâh used in Turkish Classical Music. No examples have survived to the present.
A variant of the makam Çargâh in Turkish Classical Music, formed by adding the basic scale of the makam Mâhûr to the basic scale of Çargâh.
A percussion instrument used in Turkish Classical Music. Originally it consisted of four pieces of hard wood held two in each hand like castanets, which were played in the performance of dance tunes and köçekçes, both by singers and köçeks (male dancers dressed as women). In later years, it was replaced by a pair of metal cymbals.
A type of ornament consisting of a quick tap on the first tone above the main note thus emphasizing the main note.
(Lit. "Four String") A fretted stringed instrument played with a plectrum used in 17th-century Turkish Classical Music.
A variant on the 124-beat usûl Darbeyn used in Turkish Classical Music. It is formed by the combination of the usûls Nîm Sakıyl, Sakıyl, Fâhte and Berefşân.
Lit. "Fork" - the use of the words of one piece or folk song in another piece.
A compound makam used in Turkish Classical Music, created by Santûrî Edhem Efendi by adding a scale of the makam Zengûle from dügâh (La/A - in its place) onto the basic scale of the makam Sûz-i Dil. Its tonic is La/A, and its dominants are hüseynî (Mi/E) and bûselik (Si/B).
A 24-beat major usûl used in Turkish Classical Music, consisting of a combination of two Sofyân, two Yürük Semâî and one Sofyân. It is frequently used in such genres as Peşrev, kâr, beste, tevşîh and ilâhî.
A type of harp with varying numbers of strings used in Turkish Classical Music up until the 18th century.
1. The name used for a player of the çeng (See above.)
2. The term for female dancers in various parts of Anatolia.
See Ceng-i Harbî
A troupe of çengî dancers.
A folk instrument, assumed to be stringed, mentioned in 13-century texts in connection with the kopuz. Based on the fact that it appears in the poetry of Yunus Emre, some researchers believe it was used in mystic music.
A percussion instrument used in classical Turkish Mehter music, constructed by attaching a hoop adorned with rattles, cymbals and chains to a long staff. It is played by the person leading the Mehter group, by hitting the end of the staff on the ground.
A common folk wind instrument played in Elazığ and its surroundings as well as the Teke region. It is an end-blown flute made of an eagle wing or stork leg bone
An âşık makam common in Kars and the surrounding region.
Rattle, a type of bell used in Turkish music.
A bağlama picking technique in which the pick is drawn upward over the strings.
Lit. "double." A folk instrument consisting of two cane pipes, each with a single reed, tied together. One of the pipes has at least five holes; the other may have an equal number of holes, only one or two, or even no holes at all, in which case it serves only as a single-note drone.
Another name used for the çifte in some regions. Similarly, the instrument is sometimes known as çifte kaval.
A 16-beat major usûl used in Turkish Classical Music, composed of two Düyeks, and used mostly in 16/4. It is frequently in forms such as peşrev, kâr, beste, tevşîh and ilâhî.
See Çifte Düdük.
Çifte Nağra (Nağara)
The common name for the double nakkare, a percussion instrument used in Turkish Classical Music. See Nakkare.
A 16-beat major usûl used in Turkish Classical Music, formed by combining the usûls Sofyan and Türk Aksağı.
A type of folk dance most common in western Anatolia, and the lively tune that accompanies this dance, generally in 4/4. Çiftetelli tunes are a product of urban culture but over the last fifty years have spread throughout almost all of Anatolia, and are less common among rural people.