a) Shepherd′s kaval
a) Çoban Kavali - Shepherd′s kaval.
In contrast to the fipple flutes, the shepherd′s kaval′s holes are tuned chromatically. This allows transposition of melodies. Some of these kavals have a distinct mouthpiece but most of them consist of a simple tube of wood. They have a range of three octaves, and like the zurnas, have holes bored in the end section called demons/devil′s holes.
The çigirtma is a fippleless flute that was once very popular in Elazig and its surroundings as well as the western section of the Toros Mountains. It generally has 6 holes on the top, which may number as many as eight, and one thumb hole on the back, and has a range of nearly one octave.